From the paper:
One of the key challenges facing the Government of Belize (GoB) to improving the situation in the water and sanitation sector is that the country’s population of approximately 340,000 people is distributed across a large number of communities. Over one-third of the population lives in about 190 villages and communities, each with less than 4,000 inhabitants. None of these villages and communities has network-based sanitation services due to the high costs of building and operating such small systems. This includes key tourism areas such as Caye Caulker, Placencia, Punta Gorda, Hopkins, Dangriga, San Ignacio, and Santa Elena, which rely on the maintenance of a clean environment to attract tourism. The small size and number of water and sanitation systems also means that it is difficult to adequately staff the service providers (village water boards) with the technical assistance and financial resources necessary to ensure the sustainability of the systems.
Solid waste management is another sector that the GoB has identified for improvement. Until recently, solid waste collected in cities and towns throughout the country was discharged in open or partially controlled dumps. These facilities lacked technical and environmental controls and operated without adequate equipment and sufficient cover material. In coastal areas, the inadequacy of waste disposal practices is a matter of concern due to the environmental vulnerability of the islands, the occurrence of natural disasters, and the proximity of these islands to coral reefs.